Issue 86/3 – 2018

Issue 86/3 – 2018

12/01/2019 Tana Dluhosova


Contents

Articles

Otakar Hulec
Introduction by Guest Editor………………………………………………………………………331

About the Author

OTAKAR HULEC, is a former senior researcher in the history of Africa in the Oriental Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, where he received his PhD in African Studies. He is the author of many books and articles on the modern history of southern Africa, mainly the Republic of South Africa, Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Malawi, and on southern African mythology and literature.

e-mail: ohulec@gmail.com

Alena Rettová
Swahili and Swahili Poetry in Lubumbashi: The Language and Lyrics of Sando Marteau……………………………………………………………………………………………….333–362

This article introduces the singer and poet from Lubumbashi known under the artistic name of Sando Marteau, and presents some of the poet’s lyrics. These texts serve as the basis for an exposition of the variety of Swahili spoken in Katanga, “Lubumbashi Swahili” or “Katanga/Shaba Swahili.” The article presents several songs with translations into English and lists the linguistic features they contain that are common in or even specific to “Lubumbashi Swahili.” Sando Marteau’s songs show the broad spectrum of the linguistic continuum of “Lubumbashi Swahili.” While many songs remain close to “Swahili bora,” a variety of Congolese Swahili close to the East African “Standard Swahili,” other songs freely employ “Lubumbashi Swahili.” This distinction reflects the artist’s conscious choice; indeed, he opts for “Lubumbashi Swahili” especially in songs expressive of local cultural contexts. A further interesting feature of Sando Marteau’s Swahili is his idiosyncratic disjunctive orthography, which differs from the standard orthographies found in East Africa and in the DRC. In terms of lexicon, Sando Marteau’s Swahili avoids the practice of code-switching that is otherwise exceedingly common in the Katanga region. A proper understanding of Sando Marteau’s language facilitates an appreciation of the beauty and power of his poetry.

KEYWORDS
Congolese Swahili | Katanga Swahili | Kingwana | Shaba Swahili | Sando Marteau

About the Author

ALENA RETTOVÁ is Reader in Swahili Literature and African Philosophy at the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), University of London. Her research focuses on aspects of language and genre in African philosophical texts and on African speculative fiction. Her latest monographs include Afrophone Philosophies: Reality and Challenge (2007), where she explores philosophical expression in six African languages, and Chanter l’existence: La poésie de Sando Marteau et ses horizons philosophiques (2013). In 2016 she edited a special issue on African philosophy of the Journal of African Cultural Studies.

e-mail: ar42@soas.ac.uk

Dobrota Pucherová
The Colors of Resistance in Apartheid South Africa: Black Consciousness Poetry and the Racial Elusiveness of Wopko Jensma………………………………………………………………………………………………363–380

This article analyzes South African Black Consciousness poetry of the 1970s and 1980s alongside the protest poetry of white South African poet Wopko Jensma. It is argued that, while the racial definition of oppression and resistance characteristic of Black  Consciousness poetry had the important aim of recovering black people’s dignity and fostering racial solidarity and unity, it also had the unfortunate consequence of not recognizing white resistance and preventing cross-racial solidarity and empathy. By portraying the racial divide in South Africa as absolute, it implicitly allowed white people no ethical position to speak from. The poetry of Wopko Jensma is analyzed as a unique expression of white solidarity with black South Africans, demonstrated by the poet’s mastery of the social and linguistic idiom of a wide variety of South African people, as well as by his unusual, subversive, self-othering gesture of having himself legally reclassified as Black. By thus rejecting apartheid racial categories, as well as “European” and “African” poetics, he also deconstructed blackness and whiteness as essential identities, expressing an inclusive “human consciousness” and anticipating the ideal of the “rainbow nation” invoked in South Africa after 1990.

KEYWORDS
anti-apartheid literature | Black Consciousness poetry | protest poetry | South African poetry | Wopko Jensma

About the Author

DOBROTA PUCHEROVÁ DPhil is Senior Researcher at the Institute of World Literature of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, and a lecturer in the Department of African Studies and the Department of Comparative Literature at the University of Vienna. Her research and teaching focuses on African and Afro- European literature in English, but she is also interested in contemporary Central European literatures in relation to theories of cultural trauma, postcommunism and transnationalism. She is a founding member of the Czech and Slovak Comparative Literature Association and co-edits the journal World Literature Studies, published by Institute of World Literature.

e-mail: dobrota.pucherova@savba.sk

Viera Vilhanová-Pawliková
Africa and Africans in Late Nineteenth-Century Missionary Thought. Theory and Practice……………………………………………………………………………………….381–396

The colonial conquest of Africa and the development of colonial empires in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries went hand in hand with a missionary revival during which Christian missionaries were sent to every corner of the African continent. As those missionaries were generally in closer contact with the local population than colonial officials, studying their space and survival practices, as well as the strategies and patterns of missionary thought, has considerable potential to reveal the dynamics of intercultural interaction in the imperial encounter. The present study seeks to analyze theories of the missionary cause, trace and study missionary activities in Africa, and explore some aspects of the subtle interplay of missionary encounters with African peoples, as well as missionary perceptions of Africa and Africans.

KEYWORDS
Africa | Africans | mission societies | theories of the missionary thought

About the Author

VIERA PAWLIKOVÁ-VILHANOVÁ PhD DrSc is a senior research scholar at the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Slovak Academy of Sciences and Professor Emeritus of African Studies at the University of St. Cyril and Methodius in Trnava. Having graduated in African Studies from Charles University, Prague, she continued her studies at Makerere University in Kampala, Uganda. Her interests span African history, African historiographies, African literatures and cultures, and the spread of Islam and Christianity in Africa, with a special interest in Christian missions to Africa, especially the White Fathers, their linguistic work and their role in the production of knowledge on Africa. She has done a lot of research and published books and articles on these topics. Since 1998 she has been International Director of the international project Fontes Historiae Africanae (Sources for African History) of l`Union Académique Internationale based in Brussels, the aim of the project being to publish critical editions of sources for African history.

e-mail: viera.vilhanova@savba.sk

Jan Záhořík
Inherited Inequalities and Uneasy Transformation: Socioeconomic and Ethno-political Pitfalls of an Ongoing Crisis in Ethiopia.………………………………..397–415

In the last couple of years, Ethiopia has experienced the longest wave of protests against the government since the fall of the Derg regime. Hundreds of people have been killed, tens of thousands imprisoned, and a state of emergency proclaimed, cancelled, and proclaimed again. However, a closer look at the ongoing crisis in Ethiopia reveals historically inherited patterns of inequality that have characterized all three regimes – Imperial, Socialist, and Federal. This article focuses on some of the causes of the ongoing crisis in Ethiopia and puts the anti-governmental protests into a broader perspective in order to examine their social and political consequences and possible pitfalls of the current political turbulence, including the promising current period of leadership by the Prime Minister Dr. Abiy Ahmed. These include so-far unresolved socio-economic, generational, and ethnic issues inherited from past decades.

KEYWORDS
crisis | democracy | ethnicity | Ethiopia | politics

About the Author

JAN ZÁHOŘÍK is an Africanist and historian, and Associate Professor of Modern History at the Department of Middle Eastern Studies, University of West Bohemia in Pilsen, Czech Republic. He specializes in, and has published articles and books on, the modern and contemporary history and politics of Ethiopia, European-African relations, and conflicts in Africa, as well as the role of the former Czechoslovakia in Africa during the Cold War. He has lectured at many universities in Europe, Africa, and North America.

e-mail: jzahorik@kbs.zcu.cz

Vilém Řehák
Asian-African Relations in a Historical-Comparative Perspective…………417–443

Modern post-colonial relations between independent states in Asia and Africa date back to the late 1940s. This article focuses on China, India, Japan, and Korea, whose relations with Africa during the Cold War went through several phases according to domestic political and economic conditions, the international environment, and political and economic conditions in Africa. The post-Cold War situation created a unique historical momentum to redefine relations with the continent. All four countries could build upon their positive image in Africa and aspire to become new leaders in Africa´s foreign relations. China had strong economic and political domestic reasons to turn to Africa, formulated a relatively cohesive strategy towards the continent, had enough resources to support this strategy, and found a positive response in African countries. Contrarily, Japan lacked financial resources and suffered from being perceived as part of the West, India failed to formulate a coherent strategy towards Africa and lacked financial resources, and Korea did not have strong interests on the continent. This explains the success of China in Africa; however, in the last decade India, Japan and Korea have started more pro-active policies in Africa. By recognizing the limits of China´s engagement in Africa, they can define their own comparative advantages and exploit new opportunities.

KEYWORDS
Asia-Africa relations | China-Africa relations | India-Africa relations | Japan-Africa relations | Korea-Africa relations

About the Author

VILÉM ŘEHÁK is a graduate in African Studies and Political Science and has a doctoral degree in International Relations from Charles University in Prague. His main research interest is the political economy of Africa, particularly with respect to economic integration, trade regimes in sub-Saharan Africa and the position of Africa in the global economy. In his current research he focuses on the perception of these issues in Africa, both among political and business elites and among “ordinary” citizens.

e-mail: vilem.rehak@seznam.cz

Hana Horáková
Student Protest Movements in Post-apartheid South Africa: Belated Transformation and Unfinished Decolonization………………………………….. 445–469

One of the key markers of the new millennium was a rapid rise of new social movements in South Africa representing expressions of popular anger. Many of them were directed at local government, responding to “poor service delivery.” Recently, social unrest  extended beyond specific local issues to encompass much broader antagonisms, namely, the discontent over the character and pace of transformation from apartheid. This paper focuses on the recent proliferation of student protest movements triggered by the #Rhodes must fall movement at the University of Cape Town in 2015. The protest actors demand the fundamental social reconstruction of contemporary South Africa based on “real” decolonization. Focusing on the wider context of the student protest movements, the paper analyzes their background, dynamics, and significance. It attempts to examine the discourses embedded in Africanization, which form the backbone of the strategies the protesters deploy. It aims to answer these questions: What are the causes of the student protest movements organized by the so called born-free generation? Which issues do the protesters address? With which discourses and which outcomes? What are the implications of the movements for democracy in South Africa?

KEYWORDS
africanization | born-free generation | post-apartheid South Africa | race discourse | student protest movements

About the Author

HANA HORÁKOVÁ is an Associate Professor of Social Anthropology at Metropolitan University Prague, Czech Republic. She holds a PhD in African Studies from the Institute of the Near East and Africa, Charles University. She is President of the Czech Association for African Studies. Her research interests include the anthropology of sub-Saharan Africa focusing on the politics of identity and nationalism, and theories of culture. She has published, edited and co-edited several books and other texts in the fields of social anthropology and African studies.

e-mail: hana.horakova@mup.cz

Otakar Hulec and Kateřina Mildnerová
Historiography of Czech and Slovak Studies on Africa………………………..471–542

This article focuses on the historiography of African studies in the Czech and Slovak (former Czechoslovak) Republics from the earliest contacts with Africa, via the writings of missionaries, adventurers, and intellectuals, and right up to the scientific study of African history, societies, culture, and languages by academic researchers after the Second World War. Special attention is paid to the constitution of African studies as a scientific discipline in the mid-20th century – first in the domain of linguistic research and later in the domain of historical and ethnographic research – through the work of members of the Oriental Institute of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences and the Department of Asian and African Studies in the Faculty of Arts at Charles University. After mentioning obstacles that researchers in African studies had to surmount during the communist era (1948–89), and in particular during the era of normalization (1970–89), the authors outline the development of African studies after the Velvet Revolution. Finally, they present the publication activities of both the “old” and “new” generations of researchers on Africa up to the present day.

KEYWORDS
African studies | Czech and Slovak Africanists | historiography

About the Authors

OTAKAR HULEC, is a former senior researcher in the history of Africa in the Oriental Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, where he received his PhD in African Studies. He is the author of many books and articles on the modern history of southern Africa, mainly the Republic of South Africa, Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Malawi, and on southern African mythology and literature.

e-mail: ohulec@gmail.com

KATEŘINA MILDNEROVÁ PhD is an Africanist, and a social and cultural anthropologist. She is currently an assistant professor in the Department of Sociology, Andragogy and Cultural Anthropology at Palacký University Olomouc. Her main research interests include African Christianity, West African traditional religions, witchcraft and spiritual healing, and recently also a narrative construction of identity and home of Namibian Czechs. Regionally, she specializes in Benin, Zambia and Namibia. She is the author of three monographs and several articles. She is a deputy chairman of the Czech Association for African Studies (CAAS), a member of the Czech Association of Social Anthropology (CASA) and an executive editor of the scholarly, peer-reviewed journal e-Rhizome.

e-mail: katerina.mildnerova@upol.cz

 

Book Reviews and Notes

Donna R. Jackson. US Foreign Policy in the Horn of Africa. From Colonialism to Terrorism.
(Jan Záhořík)……………………………………………………………………………………….543–544

R. W. Johnson. How Long Will South Africa Survive? The Looming Crisis.
(Petr Skalník)……………………………………………………………………………………….545–547

Gavin Steingo. Kwaito‘s Promise: Music and the Aesthetics of Freedom in South Africa.
(Vít Zdrálek)…………………………………………………………………………………………548–552

 

Our Contributors.……………………………………………………………………………….553–555

Contents of Volume 86 (2018)……………………………………………………………..557–558