Issue 87/1 – 2019

12/06/2019 Anna Křivánková


Contents

Articles

An analytical and interpretative approach to Canarian phytotoponyms of Amazigh origin………………………………………………………………………………………..1–31

Toponyms constitute some of the most important vestiges of the ancient aboriginal
language of the Canary Islands (Spain), which disappeared in the fifteenth or sixteenth century. This language has been linked to Amazigh languages within the Afro-Asian family, but further clarification is still required regarding many aspects, especially its linguistic physiognomy and the nature of its relationship with North African variants. The objective of this study is to propose an interdisciplinary methodology of interpretative analysis of these vestiges, using the example of phytotoponyms as an important lexical area within toponymy that offers relatively reliable written and oral testimonies. This objective requires a critical review of the linguistic material and its sources and an etymological methodology that incorporates geo- and ethnobotanical criteria. Based on a selection of the eleven most representative tree species of Canarian flora, the most widespread Amazigh denominations have been identified in historical-philological and ethno-botanical sources. The verification of certain isoglosses in different varieties of Amazigh has made it possible to establish parallelisms with Canarian toponymy, taking into account both philological criteria (phonetic compatibility, semantics, available documentation, interference from other languages or scriptural codes) and geo-botanical criteria (location of the possible phytotoponym and phytogeographic compatibility of the designated species).

KEYWORDS
Amazigh | phytotoponyms | phytonymy | Canary Islands

About the Authors

ANA RUTH VIDAL-LUENGO has a PhD in Semitic Philology (Arab-Islamic specialism), and devotes part of her research to the contact, conflict, and linguistic and intercultural interference between the Arab and Hispanic worlds

e-mail: anaruth.vidal@ulpgc.es

MARCOS SALAS-PASCUAL holds a PhD in Biology, specializing in botany. He is a researcher of Canarian ethno-botany in all its forms, but especially phytonymy and phytotoponymy, on which he has published numerous articles and collaborations in specialized books.

e-mail: marcossalaspascual@gmail.com

Mª TERESA CÁCERES-LORENZO has a PhD in Spanish Philology, specializing in Hispanic historical linguistics and Canarian Dialectology. She has written numerous articles and books, focusing special attention on the mechanisms of the linguistic and cultural formation of the Spanish language in the Canary Islands and America.

e-mail: mteresa.caceres@ulpgc.es

Changyu Liu
An Edition of Twelve Ur III Administrative Cuneiform Tablets from United States Collections…………………………………………………………………………………………….33–57

This article presents an edition of twelve Neo-Sumerian cuneiform texts from various collections in the United States. The economic and administrative records from three sites in southern Iraq (Irisaĝrig, Puzriš-Dagan, Umma) are linked to the management and organization of the Third Dynasty of Ur (i.e. Ur III Dynasty, or Ur III for short, 2112–2004 BC). The history of how most of the clay tablets were excavated and came to be in the collections is obscure. The publication of these cuneiform texts herein is intended to make their contents available to a broader audience of specialists in the ancient Near Eastern studies.

KEYWORDS
Sumerian texts | Irisaĝrig | Puzriš-Dagan | Umma | Third Dynasty of Ur

About the Author

CHANGYU LIU is Associate Professor in the Department of History, College of
Humanities, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, China. He earned his PhD in
Assyriology from Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg in Germany in 2015. His
current research focuses on the Ur III administration and socioeconomic history.
e-mail: assyrialiu@yahoo.com

Alexander Andrason, Irina Hornea, Marcus Joubert
The QeTAL Form in the Aramaic of Ezra – A Grammaticalization Perspective……………………………………………………………………………………………59–98

The present paper analyzes the TAM semantics of the QeTAL form in the Aramaic of Ezra within the frame of grammaticalization theory (paths) and cognitive linguistics (maps and waves). The authors demonstrate that the various senses exhibited by QeTAL can be mapped onto two sub-paths of the resultative path: the anterior and the simultaneous path. The senses of resultative proper (including the performative), present perfect/taxis (including the pluperfect), perfective past, and non-perfective past cover the consecutive stages of the anterior path. The sense of present stative corresponds to an intermediate stage of the simultaneous path. The primary peak of prototypicality (derived from the frequency of a sense, its productivity, and contextual restrictions) is located in the stage of perfective past, and a secondary peak in the stage of present perfect/taxis. The dynamic definition of QeTAL resulting from this study is consistent with a grammaticalization profile postulated for QeTAL in Daniel by Li (2009). In Ezra, however, the form is slightly less advanced along its path than in Daniel. This is arguably related to the fact that the Aramaic of Ezra is earlier than the Aramaic of Daniel.

KEYWORDS
Biblical Aramaic | TAM | grammaticalization | semantic maps | cognitive linguistics

About the Authors

ALEXANDER ANDRASON, PhD in Semitic Languages, University Complutense in Madrid, Spain (2010); PhD in African Languages, Stellenbosch University, South Africa (2016), is a lecturer in the Department of Ancient Studies at Stellenbosch University. The scope of his research includes disciplines such as linguistics, cognitive science, and complexity theory. Within the field of linguistics, he specializes in cognitive linguistics, grammaticalization theory, and typology. He speaks more than twenty living languages and has an extensive knowledge of various ancient or classical languages. His language interests include the Indo-European, Afro-Asiatic, Niger-Congo, Nilotic, and Khoe families. He also works on the documentation and preservation of endangered minority languages, e.g., Wymysorys (Poland), Arusa
(Tanzania), and Tjwao (Zimbabwe).

e-mail: andrason@sun.ac.za

IRINA CARINA HORNEA, BA (Hons) in Biblical Hebrew, Stellenbosch University,
South Africa (2018), is a master’s student and internship holder in the Department of Ancient Studies at Stellenbosch University. Her research interests include languages, both modern and ancient, cognitive linguistics, grammaticalization, and cultures of the Ancient Near East.

e-mail: 18963285@sun.ac.za

MARCUS JOUBERT, BA (Hons) in Biblical Hebrew, Stellenbosch University, South Africa (2018), is a master’s student and internship holder in the Department of Ancient Studies at Stellenbosch University. His research interests include cognitive linguistics and grammaticalization theory, as well as cultural aspects of the Ancient Near East.

e-mail: 18547516@sun.ac.za

Zeb Raft
Two Words, and Two Kinds of Poetry, in the Work of Liu Zhangqing………99–142

The idea explored in this essay is that we may best assess the value of a word in a poem not by exploring its range of meaning but by cleaving as closely as possible to the verbal sign itself. Using this strategy of minimal translation, the use and connotations of two words are examined over the course of nearly seventy couplets from the work of the eighth century poet Liu Zhangqing. “Illuminate” encompasses the range of the first word, ying, including two particularly salient applications, “reflect” and “cover.” The root meaning of the second word, dai, is “belt,” but it is argued that its poetic sense is best conveyed by its abstract form, “carry.” “Illuminating” and “carrying” perform related yet distinct functions in the classical Chinese poem (shi), and discerning these two functions may point to new direction the study of Chinese poetry.

KEYWORDS
Tang poetry | poetic diction | couplets | translation

About the Author

ZEB RAFT received his PhD from Harvard University’s Department of East Asian
Languages and Civilizations in 2007. He has taught at the University of Alberta and is currently Assistant Research Fellow at the Institute of Chinese Literature and Philosophy at Academia Sinica. His research area is China from the Eastern Han through the Tang dynasties (i.e., roughly, the first millennium of the Common Era), with a focus on poetry and historiography in this period. His main thematic interests include communication, rhetoric, textual criticism, and translation.

e-mail: zebraft@gmail.com

Zinan Yan
Trapped by Precedent: The Poetry Production of Emperor Jiaqing and the Publication of His Imperial Poetry Collections……………………………………..143–174

This paper studies the poetry production of Emperor Jiaqing (1760–1820, r. 1796–1820) as well as the publishing routine of his imperial poetry collections. The publishing routine of Jiaqing’s poetry collections was inherited from that of his father Emperor Qianlong (1711–1799, r. 1735–1795), and Jiaqing’s poetry oeuvre is second only to that of Qianlong in Chinese history. However, the statistics of their annual poetry production suggest that these two emperors displayed different levels of initiative in the daily practice of composing poetry. Moreover, two cases studies, one on Jiaqing’s semantic repetition in occasional poems and the other on the timing of his writing of large setpoems, indicate that Jiaqing saw poetry composition as an obligation and his attitude towards it was less autonomous than that of Qianlong. The review of how Jiaqing followed Qianlong’s precedent in the routine production of a large number of imperial poems leads to a discussion of the idea that the possible involvement of ghostwriters could be an important factor in understanding the nature of Jiaqing’s imperial poetry. Finally, this paper ponders what the potential meanings of poetry production to Jiaqing could have been.

KEYWORDS
Qianlong | Jiaqing | imperial literature | poetry collections | ghostwriting

About the Author

ZINAN YAN received a BEng in Software Engineering from the University of Westminster, and an MA and PhD in Sinology from SOAS, University of London. He served as Teaching Fellow at SOAS from 2011 to 2013, Lecturer at Beijing NormalWestminster, and an MA and PhD in Sinology from SOAS, University of London. He served as Teaching Fellow at SOAS from 2011 to 2013, Lecturer at Beijing Normal University from 2014 to 2018, and Visiting Scholar at the University of Oxford from 2017 to 2018; he is now Associate Professor in the Department of Traditional Chinese Literature at BNU. His research areas are Ming dynasty poetry and poetics, Qing dynasty court literature and structuralism in literary studies.

e-mail: zinanyan@gmail.com

Ying-kit Chan
Proto-Nationalism and Remembering Taiwan: Qiu Fengjia (1864–1912) and Modern Education in Late Qing Guangdong………………………………………. 175–206

With the Treaty of Shimonoseki and its addenda in 1895, Japan proceeded to annex the Qing Province of Taiwan. Some Han settlers of Taiwan established the Taiwan Republic to resist the Japanese takeover, but they were quickly defeated and evacuated to the mainland, where they had to reconstruct their lives and redefine their role in history. This article examines the life and activities of Qiu Fengjia (1864– 1912), arguably the most famous of the “exiles” from Taiwan. Though a leader of the Taiwan Republic, sworn to perish with it if he must, Qiu Fengjia eventually fled to Guangdong, his ancestral province, where he then had to rehabilitate his reputation. This article suggests that he successfully redeemed himself through his poetic work and especially his contributions to modern, Western-oriented education in the Chaoshan (Chaozhou and Shantou) region, his adopted home in Guangdong. By invoking the common ties of culture, geography, and language to explain why the people of Guangdong should have greater sympathy for the Taiwan Republic and why the overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia should be concerned about conditions in their native province, he imagined a Chinese proto-nation that could strengthen itself against foreign imperialism through philanthropy and educational reforms.

KEYWORDS
education | Guangdong | Qing China | Qiu Fengjia | Taiwan Republic

About the Author

YING-KIT CHAN is a doctoral candidate in the Department of East Asian Studies, Princeton University. He serves as the editorial assistant for Nan Nü: Men, Women, and Gender in China. He has published several papers on Qing China and is researching the configuration of central-local relations and provincial identity in Guangdong at the turn of the twentieth century. His latest articles have appeared in the Journal of Chinese History, the Journal of World History, and Modern Asian Studies.

e-mail: ykchan@princeton.edu

 

Book Reviews

Jeffrey Spier, Timothy Potts, and Sara E. Cole (eds.). Beyond the Nile. Egypt and the Classical World.
(Květa Smoláriková)……………………………………………………………………………..207–210

Aaron Tugendhaft. Baal and the Politics of Poetry. The Ancient Word 1.
(Pavel Čech)………………………………………………………………………………………..211–213

Daniel H. Levine, and Dawn Nagar (eds.). Region-Building in Africa. Political and Economic Challenges.
(Vilém Řehák)………………………………………………………………………………………214–216

 

Our Contributors.……………………………………………………………………………….217–218