Issue 87/2 – 2019

18/10/2019 Anna Křivánková


Contents

Articles

Ahmet Yaşar
Controlling Space: State Supervision over Urban Khans in Eighteenth- and Early Nineteenth-Century Istanbul………………………………………………………213–232

This paper spatializes a set of questions regarding public order and disorder that bear on urban life and urban government during eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Ottoman Istanbul. By focusing on urban khans as loci for unidentifiable persons (mechûlü’l-ahvâl) in the city, it examines various problems the central authorities associated with their presence and surveillance mechanisms developed with regard to these individuals. By analyzing the urban rebellions of 1730 and 1740, and the Greek rebellion in 1821, it follows how urban khans became spaces of inspection by the authorities in order to explore a broader notion of public order based on social norms. Finally, it discusses aspects of political language that legitimized the state’s acts of surveillance over khans and their residents, by focusing on the terms mefâsid (evils) and maslaha (redressing of wrongs).

KEYWORDS
Khans | supervision | Ottoman Istanbul | public order | mefâsid

About the Author

AHMET YAŞAR is an Assistant Professor at the History Department of Beykent University in Istanbul-Turkey. He received his PhD in History at Boğaziçi University in 2016. His area of interest is urban experience with a focus on the use of public space (coffeehouses, khans, and public baths) and the exertion of power over public space within the context of early modern Ottoman Istanbul.

e-mail: ahmetyasar@beykent.edu.tr

Metin Yüksel
Iranian Students in Turkey, 1944–1950…………………………………………………241–266

From 1944 through the beginning of the 1950s, the ruling Republican People’s Party (RPP) in Turkey funded more than 100 Iranian students to study in Turkey. Combined with the existing scholarship on the period, an analysis of a large number of original Turkish archival documents on these students suggests that this wartime project aimed to extend the influence of Turkey into Iran. The outstanding contribution of this study is that it approaches the Great Power conflict during the Second World War and its aftermath in Turkey and Iran not through the accounts of political elites but through young, ordinary students from Iran as reflected in their letters and petitions, mainly addressed to the RPP officials. Bringing to light the names, photos, petitions, and letters of Iranian students studying in Turkey in the second half of the 1940s and reflecting their voices cloaked in an official discourse, this study is hence an original contribution to the social history of modern Turkey and Iran.

KEYWORDS
Turkey | Iran | Second World War | Pan-Turkism | student mobility

About the Author

METİN YÜKSEL received his PhD at the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, University of Chicago in 2011, and currently works as an Associate Professor in the Department of Political Science and Public Administration at Hacettepe University in Ankara. He publishes extensively on modern history of Iran and Turkey in English, Turkish, and Kurdish volumes and journals.

e-mail: metinyuksel@hacettepe.edu.tr

Haluk Arda Oskay and Sibel Özkan
Activist Photography and Its Usage in Women’s Movements: Guerrilla Girls and FEMEN………………………………………………………………………………………..267–293

This article examines the role of photography in the organization and actualization of social movements, and how it has depended on technological developments. The study reveals the transformation of activist movements, which began as gangsterism, from the early days until today and discusses the shifting of methods to the digital environment with the support of technological developments. The human communities that pour out into the streets to awaken the masses, can now let millions hear their voices within a single photo frame. In this context, as a branch of activist movements, photographs of the two most visible women’s organizations (Guerrilla Girls and FEMEN) are analyzed. The use of the photograph by non-governmental organizations — and whether the organization’s objectives are concordant with the visual content — are discussed.

KEYWORDS
social movements | women’s movements | activism | photography | activist photograph | Guerrilla Girls | FEMEN

About the Authors

HALUK ARDA OSKAY is an Assistant Professor at the Photography Department of the Faculty of Fine Arts, Kocaeli University. Apart from photography his research also includes social science, especially advertising and public relations in the context of contemporary society.

e-mail: ardaoskay@gmail.com

SIBEL ÖZKAN is a Research Assistant at the Photography and Graphics Department of the Faculty of Communication, Selcuk University. Her research focuses on the role of photography in media.

e-mail: sibelozkan@selcuk.edu.tr

Duygu Özge Gürkan
Some Observations on Resultative Secondary Predicates
in Turkish…………………………………………………………………………………………..295–313

This paper discusses the extent to which resultative secondary predicates occur in the Turkish language. It is grounded in the cross-linguistic distinctions with respect to resultative constructions among languages. I will determine the essential characteristics of resultative secondary predicates both semantically and syntactically and then I will compare Turkish to some other languages, such as English and German. A resultative is a secondary predicate type which shares some characteristics with depictives. I will first mention their common characteristics based on studies carried out by Schultze-Berndt and Himmelmann (2004) and Himmelmann and Schultze-Berndt (2006), and then address the differences between them. Languages differ from one another with respect to the types of resultative secondary predicates; these differences are based on classes of matrix verbs and on the syntactic category of the result phrase. In the current study, I will specifically try to state the possible types and restrictions concerning resultative secondary predicates in Turkish. I will then further discuss the kinds of constituents which can be controllers of resultative secondary predicates in Turkish.

KEYWORDS
resultative | resultative construction | secondary predicate | Turkish

About the Author

DUYGU ÖZGE GÜRKAN received her PhD in 2016 at the Department of Turkish Language and Literature of Hacettepe University in Ankara, where she currently works as an Assistant Professor. Her thesis discusses the types of subordinate clauses with adverbial function in Turkish on the syntactic level utilizing modern linguistics theories. She also studied as a postdoctoral researcher in the Department of Language, Literature and Linguistics at Syracuse University. She publishes extensively on the syntax and comparative grammar of Turkish and Turkic languages

e-mail: ozgedemir@hacettepe.edu.tr

Kirill Alexeev
Anatomy of the Mongolian Colophons in the Translations of the Word of the Buddha…………………………………………………………………………………………315–331

The article brings into focus the structure and typology of the colophons in the Mongolian translations of texts whose authorship is ascribed to the Buddha himself. Such texts were repeatedly translated into the Mongolian language and highly
venerated by believers. As old as Mongolian literature itself, colophons or “concluding words” accompanied the nation’s literary canon over a period running from the late thirteenth to the early twentieth century. They are the blocks of textual information that the creator of a text or book, be it a translator, a scribe, or a publisher, regarded as being an important addition to the main text. Despite the diversity of such informative blocks, which include praying formulas, panegyrics, benedictions, cosmological, historical, and quasi-historical accounts, didactic fragments, and so on, the colophons followed a settled template and established quite fixed information and expression spheres, i.e., they only narrate about certain things and use a certain language. This inflexibility of the colophons is explained by their main function – they represent a certain type of paratext forming part of the complex mediation between the book and the reader aimed at ensuring the reception of the translated text as an authoritative and legitimate source of Buddhist wisdom.

KEYWORDS
colophon | paratext | Mongolian literature | translated texts | buddhavacana | Mongolian Kanjur | aesthetics of identity

About the Author

KIRILL ALEKSEEV has been working as a senior assistant professor at the Faculty of Asian and African Studies of St. Petersburg State University, Russia since 1999. He specializes in traditional Tibetan and Mongolian literatures and religions, textual criticism, and manuscriptology. His particular academic interests lie in the sphere of the Mongolian Kanjur and Mongolian-language Buddhist hagiography.

e-mail: kiril.alekseev@spbu.ru

Setefanus Suprajitno
Various Petals of the Lotus: The Identities of the Chinese Buddhists in Indonesia………………………………………………………………………………………….. 333–358

When Indonesia’s New Order regime (1965-1998) was in power, Chinese Indonesians were asked to abandon their traditional religions, such as Confucianism, Daoism, and Chinese Buddhism, or to merge into the Buddhism made more Indonesian by eliminating its Chinese traditional influence. This found support among Chinese Indonesian Buddhists who wanted to “purify” Buddhism from its “non-religious elements,” and to separate it from the social stigma of “Chinese religion.” However, the fall of the regime triggered
the re-emergence of Chinese rituals in Buddhism. For some, the comeback of these rituals to Buddhism should be carefully examined. While they accept the celebration of Chinese traditions, they dislike blending Buddhism with them. This creates tensions between the religious and the cultural elements in Chinese Indonesians’ Buddhism because their Buddhism has been so ingrained in Chinese culture that separating the religious from the cultural is not easy. Through ethnographic study in Surabaya, I investigate discursive practices Chinese Indonesian Buddhists use for coming to terms with these tensions. I also examine how these practices shape their ethno-religious identity construction. The finding shows that they use the Buddhist teaching of openmindedness for coming to terms with these tensions, and for innovating, transforming and recasting their religious practices.

Keywords
Buddhism | Chinese community | Chinese religion | identity | Indonesia

About the Author

SETEFANUS SUPRAJITNO is a lecturer in the Graduate Program, Faculty of Letters, Petra Christian University, Surabaya, Indonesia. He received his PhD in sociocultural anthropology at Cornell University. His research interests lie in the area of ethnicity, identity, and cultural memory.

e-mail: steph@petra.ac.id

Jae-Beom Hong and Seong-Kwan Cho
Distinctive Features in South and North Korean Translations of Stanislavski: Etude and Jagam
in Baeusueob (An Actor Prepares)……………………. 359–381

This essay examines South and North Korean translations of Konstantin Stanislavski’s An Actor’s Works on Himself in the Process of Creating of Experience, in terms of its influence on theater rehearsal and training. The South Korean version (AT), which was published during the Cold War era, is a relay translation of the Russian original into English; whereas, the North Korean version (ATE) is a direct translation of the Russian original. The substantial difference between AT and ATE lies in the choice of how to translate etude and jagam from the Russian original. AT transmitted the English translator’s subjective replacements for Stanislavski’s terms. It also repeated the English translator’s ignorance of the significance of two terms that have essential functions in acting training or creating a role under the Stanislavski system. This has resulted in the incomplete reception of the System in South Korea and theater artists have been unable to apply etude and jagam in their works. Meanwhile, owing to North Korea’s cultural cooperation with the Soviet Union ATE maintained the two terms almost intact. ATE helped promote innovation within the old North Korean theater production system based on apprenticeship and enabled readers to comprehend the System more accurately than the South Korean translation.

KEYWORDS
Stanislavski system | translation | etude | jagam | exercise | gibun

About the Authors

HONG JAE-BEOM is a Professor in the Department of Korean Language and Literature at Konkuk University, Seoul. He received his PhD in Korean literature from Seoul National University in 1998. Hong’s essay (with Cho) “The Method of Action Analysis and the North Korean Realism Theater in the 1960s” was published by Asian Theatre Journal 36, no. 2, 378−94. His most recent monograph is The Art of Adaption (2014).

e-mail: luke@konkuk.ac.kr

CHO SEONG-KWAN is an Assistant Professor in Department of English Language and Literature at Kyung Hee University, Seoul. His essay “Theater Censorship in South Korea” appears in New Theatre Quarterly 34, no. 3, 249−59. He was awarded his PhD in Theatre Studies from University of Warwick, UK in 2015.

e-mail: sakta@khu.ac.kr

Our Contributors………………………………………………..383–384