Issue 87/3 – 2019

20/01/2020 Anna Křivánková


Contents

Articles

Tania Notarius
The N-stem in Ugaritic: Formal, Semantic, and Historical Considerations…………………………………………………………………………………385–413

The present paper maps out the formal and functional properties of the Ugaritic
N-stem in relation to other Ugaritic non-active constructions, specifically the G stative, Gpass, and Gt. The N-stem operates as a middle voice, promoting the semantic Patient to the syntactic position of subject and deriving “inchoative” verbs from stative roots, unaccusatives from dynamic roots of motion and change, and anticausatives, reciprocals, and (medio)-passives from dynamic transitive roots. In prose N-verbs are in general more frequent, and the forms of the SC are in particular more numerous, than in poetry. An explicitly “prosaic” usage of the N-stem is a (medio-)passive; on the contrary, the reciprocal usage is characteristically “poetic.” The latter phenomenon is explained in terms of the contact with Akkadian.

KEYWORDS
Akkadian| linguistics | middle voice | N‑stem | Ugaritic

About the Author

Tania Notarius, PhD is a lecturer at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, an affiliated researcher at the University of Free State (Bloemfontein), and a lecturer and the head of the MA Program “Near Eastern Languages” at the Polis – The Jerusalem Institute of Languages and Humanities. She is the author of the monograph The Verb in Archaic Biblical Poetry and dozens of articles on Hebrew and Northwest Semitic languages.

e-mail: tnotarius@gmail.com

Mustafa Dehqan and Vural Genç
In Search of Allegiance: Shah Tahmāsp’s Communication with Zaynal Bayg of Hakkārī…………………………………………………………………………………………….415–420

The Kurdish emirate of Hakkārī played a very important role in the interaction between the Ottoman and Safavid empires. Brought under Ottoman control, in the course of the sixteenth century Hakkārī turned into one of the principal frontier emirates, connected through frontier regions with the main centers of the Safavid state via Ādharbāyjān. Despite its Ottoman position in the sixteenth century, we know precious little about Safavid efforts to gain the allegiance of Hakkārī. One of Shah Tahmāsp’s existing letters, published here for the first time, illustrates his side of the correspondence with the Hakkārī emir Zaynal Bayg, and helps to explain a few obscure points in the Safavid-Kurdish relationship.

KEYWORDS
Hakkārī | Kurdish | Ottoman | Safavid | Shah Tahmāsp | Zaynal Bayg |

About the Authors

Mustafa Dehqan graduated from the University of Tehran with a BA in History and an MA in Historical Linguistics. His recent works include “A Kurdish Garshuni Poem by David of Barazne” – a co-authored article with Alessandro Mengozzi – and a book Index to Sharaf-nama.

e-mail: mustafadehqan@yahoo.com

Vural Genç received his PhD in History from İstanbul University in 2014. His work focuses specifically on Ottoman-Safavid political relations and cultural contacts in the sixteenth century. He has published two books and several articles in these fields.

e-mail: vuralgenc@hotmail.com

Yaşar Tolga Cora
Providing Services and Bargaining Over Loyalty: The Crimean War and the Armenian Elite in the Ottoman Empire…………………………………………………421–444

Legislative developments concerning the civic and religious rights of the Christian and Jewish communities in the Ottoman Empire in the nineteenth century have been examined widely. The focus, however, has been on the developments following the Crimean War, and particularly the Reform Edict (Islahat Fermanı) of 1856 and the role European powers’ demands directed at the Ottoman Empire – their wartime ally and the new member of the “Concert of Europe” – played in these developments. This article questions this Eurocentric view by shifting the focus from European pressure as the main moving force behind the changing relations between Christian subjects and the Empire to the domestic dynamics of the Empire by examining the Armenian elite’s participation in Ottoman war efforts. It argues that the role the elite played in the borderlands throughout the war period, including provisioning of the army and ensuring the loyalty of local communities, provided them with the political leverage to negotiate and eventually enhance their position in the imperial hierarchy in the years following the war. The article highlights the wartime developments as crucial factors behind political and legislative changes and the construction of the modern Ottoman state in the second half of the nineteenth century.

KEYWORDS
Ottoman Empire | Crimean War | non-Muslims | Armenians | Ottoman army |
borderlands | politics of notables | military provisioning

About the Author

Yaşar Tolga Cora is currently an assistant professor in the Department of History at Boğaziçi University (Istanbul, Turkey). He received his PhD from the University of Chicago in 2016 and he was a postdoctoral fellow on the Armenian Studies program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor in 2017. His research is on the social and economic history of the late Ottoman Empire, with a particular focus on Armenian communities, and life narratives of Ottoman Armenians. He co-edited The Ottoman East in the Nineteenth Century: Societies, Identities and Politics.

e-mail: ytolgacora@gmail.com

Raj Sekhar Basu
Controversies over Sikh Involvement in Alien Terrain:Turbulence in Punjab, Gandhi-Sikh Discord, and the Uneasiness in Vaikom, 1924–1925………………………445–482

The article essentially deals with the participation of Sikh volunteers in an agitation
dealing with the opening of all roads in the vicinity of the Shiva temple in Vaikom,
lasting over one and half years, between 1924 and 1925. The journey of the Sikhs to alien territories were by no means something strange, since the Sikh scriptures are replete with the long journeys that Guru Nanak undertook both within South Asia as well as to the distant parts of Asia. The Sikhs had always been ahead of other communities in traversing through trade routes and making use of the pilgrimage sites. However, their decision to take part in the Vaikom Satyagraha, launched primarily by the nationalist minded leaders in the princely state of Travancore met with opposition on the part of Mahatma Gandhi, who essentially viewed it as a Hindu affair. This opposition of Gandhi was to a great extent influenced by his own prejudical understanding of the Gurudwara reform movement spearheaded by the Akalis in the immediately preceding years, since there was a belief that the Sikh leadership had not totally comprehended the logic of satyagraha, based on the tenets of non-violence. Gandhi’s instructions to the Akalis
to leave Vaikom, vindicated the fact that the developments in Punjab, particularly in
Nabha and several other places would have a strict bearing over the participation and political strategies that were likely to be adopted in the Vaikom satyagraha.

KEYWORDS
Sikhs | Janamsakhi Guru Nanak | langars | Vaikom | Pulayas | satyagraha | Mahatma Gandhi | Congress | Nambudris | temple

About the Author

Raj Sekhar Basu is a professor in the Department of History, University of Calcutta and, as a South Asia specialist, he focuses on the social and political history of the region. He has a diverse range of research interests, including Dalit history and politics, the history of medicine, and indentured labor history in the Pacific. His main publications are Nandanar’s Children: The Paraiyars Tryst with Destiny, Tamilnadu, 1850-1956, Dalit Experiences in Colonial and Post Colonial India and the co-edited volumes Narratives of the Excluded: Caste Issues in Colonial India, Narratives from the Margin: Aspects of Adivasi History in India, and Medical Encounters in British India. He is a recipient of several international fellowships and has been a visiting professor to many European universities.

e-mail: rajsekharbasu2001@yahoo.com

Alessandra Consolaro
Spaces, Places, Dwellings, and Beings. A Contribution to a Topoanalysis of Rahul Sankrityayan’s Bāisvīṃ Sadī…………………………………………………..483–507

Pandit Rahul Sankrityayan’s creative writing Bāisvīṃ sadī (Twenty–second century) is an imaginary journey in time and space. Mobility is a crucial element in this story:
it implies changes of space, but also physical and mental challenges. In light of
topoanalysis – the term coined by French philosopher Gaston Bachelard to describe the detailing of intimate spaces – a better understanding of the self can be attained through a research of the places in which the subject has lived on account of the close link between self and place. Place attachment is in direct proportion to the integrity of identity. This paper aims to contribute to a revised topoanalysis of Bāisvīṃ sadī.

KEYWORDS
Hindi literature | Rahul Sankrityayan | space and place | topoanalysis | Utopia

About the Author

Alessandra Consolaro is Associate Professor of Hindi Language and Literature at the University of Torino (Italy). She completed her MA in Sanskrit (University of Milan 1986) and Hindi (University of Torino 2000). She obtained her PhD in History, Institutions and International Relationships at the University of Pisa, Italy (1997). She was a visiting researcher at the University of Uppsala (Sweden) in 2010, and a visiting professor in Kolhapur University (India) in 2015. Her field of interest and research is marked by interdisciplinarity and is based on feminist and gender critique. She has published on South Asian history, the history of the Hindi language, colonial and postcolonial theory, contemporary Hindi literature, critical study, and translation.

e-mail: alessandra.consolaro@unito.it

Yunfei Bai
World Literature And Nationalism: Tibetan Translations Of Alphonse Daudet’s Short Story “La Dernière Classe”…………………………………………………….. 509–535

Famed for its advocacy of linguistic patriotism and national survival, the nineteenthcentury short story “La dernière classe” (The Last Lesson) by the French writer Alphonse Daudet has achieved a broad readership worldwide. By tracing the afterlife of Daudet’s story in both Tibet proper and the Tibetan diaspora in India, this essay casts fresh light on the encroachment of nationalist agendas on the reception of foreign literature in Asia. It thereby argues against the one-size-fits-all “detachedness” posited by world literature theorists when conceptualizing the transmission of literary texts across national boundaries.

KEYWORDS
Tibet | world literature | translation | nationalism

About the Author

YUNFEI BAI is currently a postdoctoral fellow in the Society of Fellows in the Humanities at the University of Hong Kong. He earned his PhD in French with an emphasis on Comparative Literature at Rutgers University in 2018. A polyglot philologist, he is broadly interested in the tangled relationship between nationalism, Orientalism, minority identities, and the dissemination of world literature under state regulation of the book market. His recent articles have appeared in peer-reviewed journals such as Revue d’Etudes Tibétaines, Comparative Literature Studies, and China Perspectives.

e-mail: baiyunfeipku@gmail.com

Tomáš Gecko
The Founding Generation of Japanese Scholars in the Czech Lands (1918–1968):Social Structure, the Academic Field, and Generational Dynamic)……………………………………………………………………….537–567

The paper aims to understand the process of constituting and consolidating Japanese Studies in the Czech lands, i.e., the Western parts of Czechoslovakia consisting of Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia, in the period between the establishment of the Czechoslovak Republic (1918) and the invasion of the Warsaw Pact armies (1968). It was this historical period that overlapped with the life and professional activity of the founding generation of local Japanese Studies (Gerolf Coudenhove-Kalergi, Otto Wierer, Jaroslav Průšek, Vlasta Hilská). What were the foundations from which this discipline emerged in the Czech lands and how did social transformations affect its development? To what extent was it influenced by the survival, adaptation, and negotiation strategies of the members of the founding generation of this discipline? The analysis of the behavior of social agents (the microlevel) within the context of paradigmatic and ideological changes in the social structure (the macro-level) using the sociological methodology of Pierre Bourdieu enriched by the generational theory of Karl Mannheim makes it possible to particularize the Sonderweg of Japanese Studies in the Czech lands in comparison with academic institutions further to the west and in the USA, and thus to enrich the social science discourse of East Asia within Western civilization.

KEYWORDS
Japanese Studies in Czechoslovakia | Academic Field | Generational Dynamics |
Post-Structural Sociology | History of Science

About the Author

TOMÁŠ GECKO is a graduate of the PhD program at Charles University in Prague. He works as a postdoctoral fellow at the Masaryk Institute and the Archives of the Czech Academy of Sciences and as a senior lecturer at the Institute of Economic and Social History, Faculty of Arts of Charles University. His research interest is mainly focused on business history, international economic relations, and the history of science, with a special emphasis on the development of Czechoslovak discourse on East Asia.

e-mail: gecko@mua.cas.cz

Book Review

Lisa Fairbrother, Jiří Nekvapil and Marián Sloboda, eds. The Language Management Approach: A Focus on Research Methodology.
(Fariba Chamani)…………………………………………………………………………………569–571

Our Contributors………………………………………………………………………………..573–574

Contents of Volume 87……………………………………………………………………….575–576