Issue 83/1 – 2015

Issue 83/1 – 2015

23/06/2015 Tana Dluhosova


 

Contents

Articles

Andrei Nikolaev
The Sarcophagus of Tja-nefer
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….1–30

 

The article investigates the inner sarcophagus of the priest of Ruti, Tja-nefer, who lived during the XXV–XXVI Dynasties in the south of the country, most probably in Thebes. The coffin bears abstracts from the 42nd Chapter of the Book of the Dead and is decorated with many figures of anthropomorphous gods. Of particular interest is the record of a very rare epithet of the god Thot (“foremost in the temple of hearing”) and the southern influences to the list of deities.

Keywords

Sarcophagus | coffin | XXV–XXVI Dynasties | priest of Ruti | 42nd Chapter of the Book of the Dead

About the Author

ANDREI NIKOLAEV has been awarded a PhD degree in History from the University of Saint Petersburg (Russia) for the thesis entitled Stelae of the I-IV Dynasties of Ancient Egypt: Structural Analysis. Previously he taught at the University of Saint Petersburg, where he is now a lecturer of the chair of Ancient Orient at the Faculty of Asian and African Studies. He also holds a position of deputy head of the Oriental Department in the Hermitage Museum, Russia. His research interests include mainly Early Dynastic Objects of Ancient Egypt and Late Period Coffins.
e-mail: an_nikolaev@hotmail.com

 

Necmi Erdoğan
The Vicissitudes of Folk Narratives in Republican Turkey: The “People,” National Pedagogy, and Grotesque Laughter

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..31–51

 

The article examines the attempts to modernize folk narratives in Turkey, with a special emphasis on the ones characterized by grotesque imagery, including shadow theatre and Keloğlan tales. During the 1930s, the early Republican regime launched a project aimed at employing folk narratives in the service of its Kemalist national pedagogy. This study argues that the transposition of humorous folk narratives was bound to fail because of the incongruity between the “cheerful folk word” and the “dismal official word.” The study also analyzes the later adaptations of Keloğlan tales and transfigurations of Keloğlan, and argues that they followed the early Republican project insofar as ideological discourses speak in and through them. It asserts that despite all attempts to suppress the grotesque elements of the folk tradition of laughter, these have permeated into modern popular culture.

Keywords

Turkey | folk narratives | laughter | shadow theatre | Keloğlan | grotesque

About the Author

NECMI ERDOĞAN, a PhD of Lancaster University, is Associate Professor in the Department of Political Science and Public Administration, METU, Ankara. He has published numerous articles about Turkish politics and culture and is a contributor to Civil Society in the Grip of Nationalism: Studies on Political Culture in Contemporary Turkey (Orient-Institut, 2000) and The Politics of Permanent Crisis: Class, Ideology and State in Turkey (New York, 2002). He is also the editor of, and contributor to Yoksulluk Halleri: Türkiye’de Kent Yoksulluğunun Toplumsal Görünümleri [The Conditions of the Poor: Political and Cultural Aspects of Urban Poverty in Turkey] (Istanbul, 2002); and Boşuna mı Okuduk? Türkiye’de Beyaz Yakalı İşsizliği [Educated for Nothing? White Collar Unemployment in Turkey] (Istanbul, 2011).
e-mail: necmi@metu.edu.tr

 

Barakatullo Ashurov
Sogdian Christian Texts: Socio-Cultural Observations
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..53–70

Sogdian Christian texts are one of the largest extant Christian bodies of writing in an Iranian language, and were discovered in the early decades of the twentieth century by members of the German Turfan Expeditions. All Sogdian Christian texts known today were discovered at the ruin of Shüi-pang, near the modern-day town of Bulayïq, located 10 km north of Turfan, China, and a small number were found in the Dunhuang area. Considering the ascetically character of the texts it is believed that the site of the finds was probably that of a Christian monastery. This article is concerned with the question of the socio-cultural themes and contexts observed in these texts. Part 1 offers introductory review of the composition of the texts focusing on the issue of orthography as a symbol of identity. Part 2 discusses the theme of multi-ethnicity and multilinguality demonstrated in the texts. Part 3 offers discussion on the theme of continuity and preservation of the East Syriac Christian literature in Sogdian.

Keywords

Sogdian Christian texts | Church of the East-Sogdian culture

About the Author

BARAKATULLO ASHUROV is a head of collection registration and cataloguing department at the National Museum of Tajikistan. He received his doctorate in the Study of Religions from the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. His research interests include the spread and influence of the Eastern Syriac-speaking Christianity among Sogdians, an Eastern Iranian-speaking people in Central Asia between the 5th and 9th century, with particular focus on the cultural adaptation and indigenous representation of Christianity from the material culture objects and manuscript tradition perspectives.
e-mail: barakatullo@gmail.com

 

Ayla Joncheere
Intangible Inventions: The Kalbeliya Gypsy Dance Form, From Its Creation to UNESCO Recognition
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..71–93

Despite the creation of the Kalbeliya (Kālbeliyā) dance form in the 1980s, it was recognized as a UNESCO intangible cultural heritage in 2010. Rajasthani “Gypsy” performances, featuring a dance designed by the nomadic Kalbeliya community, have quickly become popular among tourists in India as well as on Western world music stages. The state of Rajasthan, where the Kalbeliyas hail from, is celebrated as “India’s heritage state” by the Indian government as it seeks to promote tourism and the international dissemination of Indian culture through performances and festivals. In this paper, I sketch the history of the Kalbeliya dance form from its origins in the 1980s through to the UNESCO nomination in 2010. Moreover, I discuss the effects of its recognition as a world heritage dance tradition. The official approval of the Kalbeliya dance form as a heritage activity further highlights the challenges to UNESCO’s candidate selection process. This paper aims to explain the reasons for the nomination of the Kalbeliya dance form (how and why UNESCO was persuaded to recognize it as a suitable candidate) by connecting this to the continued processes of nationalism and romanticism, the economic strategies adopted by the cultural tourism industry and the commodification and commercialization of Indian folk arts.

Keywords

Kālbeliyā community | dance | UNESCO | Intangible Heritage | Invented Tradition | Cultural Policy

About the Author

AYLA JONCHEERE is currently working on a PhD project, preliminarily entitled Kalbeliya Dance: from Veiled Gypsy Dance to Contemporary Heritage on the Global Stage (2012–16). She holds a master’s degree in Indian Languages and Cultures from Ghent University (2010), and a postgraduate qualification in Cultural Management from Artevelde Hogeschool (2011). She began her training in Kālbeliyā dance at the age of twelve (2001), and spent considerable time touring in Europe with Rajasthani artists (including Kālbeliyā dancers). After 2006, she began traveling to India on a regular basis to work with Kālbeliyā dancers and other artist communities in Rajasthan.
e-mail: ayla.joncheere@ugent.be

 

Rudolf Yanson
Predictability of Phonological Changes in Burmese
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….95–115

This article intends to show that there are sound changes underway in modern Burmese that are not reflected in the standard pronunciations given in dictionaries and textbooks, and that, moreover, these changes continue trends that have been apparent throughout the nine hundred years of the known history of the Burmese phonological system.

Keywords

Phonological system | phonological subsystems | vowel symmetry | evolution | initials | rimes | reconstructions

About the Author

RUDOLF A.YANSON, graduate of the Dept. of Burmese philology of Leningrad University (1962), PhD degree 1969, Doctor degree 1992. Currently Head of the Department of Philology of Southeast Asia and Korea, St. Petersburg University. Fields of interest: phonology of syllabic languages, phonological problems of Old Burmese, History of the Burmese language, grammar of Modern Burmese, Old Burmese Inscriptions. Author of about 70 publications (most in Russian) including the monograph “Issues in Old Burmese Phonology” (1990).
e-mail: yanson@ry1703.spb.edu

 

Alexandra Nikitina
The Song of Ouyang Hai: The Destruction of an Ideal Hero
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..117–136

This article sets out to analyze the novel The Song of Ouyang Hai by Jin Jingmai (1965), and to do so within the paradigm of poststructuralist literary criticism. The deconstruction of the text helps us to discover its intertextuality and simulacra and to reveal the contradictions between the author’s ideas and the image of the protagonist as actually presented to the reader. Through reference to intertextuality, we see that Ouyang Hai is incapable of thinking and acting independently, he is guided by set phrases and behavior patterns that he has gleaned from Communist literature. Slogans that pervade his speech do not represent real actions, but only simulate them, thus creating a hyperreal environment filled with signs that do not have a prototype in real life, i.e., simulacra. Ouyang Hai’s maturation, as he acquires political and ideological consciousness is, in the author’s opinion, the process of his evolution. I argue that, on the contrary, this transformation leads to the destruction of the image, which is mostly constructed of propaganda slogans. The image constituting the mere sum of these artificial elements is no longer an integral whole, it breaks down into its elements – destructs, dismantles, defragments itself. Finally, Ouyang Hai is not a copy of a real human being, but – in J. Baudrillard’s words – “its own pure simulacrum.”

Keywords

Song of Ouyang Hai | Jin Jingmai | Chinese Communist novel | ideal hero | deconstruction | simulacrum | intertextuality | Chinese literature of the Mao era

About the Author

ALEXANDRA NIKITINA is currently pursuing a PhD degree in Philology from St. Petersburg State University (Russia); her thesis is entitled The Evolution of Character Portrayal in the Chinese Prose of 1949–1999. She has received both a BA and MA in Chinese Studies at the Faculty of Asian and African Studies of the aforementioned University and is now teaching the modern and classical Chinese language there. Her research interests include modern Chinese literature, overseas Chinese literature and the literary policy of the CPC. She is a member of the European and American Associations for Chinese Studies.
e-mail: sashurochka@gmail.com

 

Carsten Storm 
Violence and Youth in the Work of Edward Yang
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….137–160

This paper analyses images and functions of youth violence in the movies of Edward Yang. The terms youth and violence have made a “career” of their own in the academic fields of Cultural Studies, sociology, and psychology. The paper will probe into the validity and usefulness of these theoretical assumptions in a Taiwanese and/or East Asian environment by addressing three interconnected aspects: (i) the image of youth characters and the alignment with age-specific forms of behavior and life-style that separate them from adults; (ii) the function and ethics of violence in the movies and in youth discourses; and (iii) the “grammatical” functions of violence in the aesthetic structure of the cinematic narration. The author argues that Yang contradicts typical Cultural Studies assumptions on youth, the relationship with adulthood and the function of violence in the process of transition. Yang blurs the boundaries between youth and adulthood and negates a fundamental change and development, at least with regard to the use of violence. Violence as a form of youth resistance is transformed into a notion of banality and anonymity and thus becomes a means of production and a standard form of human agency. Additionally, violence serves as the prime device in Yang’s narrative structure.

Keywords

Edward Yang | film | youth | resistance | ethics | cinematic language

About the Author

CARSTEN STORM, Professor of Chinese Studies at the Department of Middle Eastern and Far Eastern Languages and Cultures at the University of Erlangen, Germany. His interests include Chinese and Taiwanese literature and film, issues of identity, authenticity, historicity, and their respective temporary and spatial transitions. He is co-editor of The Margins of Becoming. Identity and Culture in Taiwan (2007) and author of Imagination der Geschichte [Imagining History. Authenticity, historicity, resistance, and identity in Chinese historical novels] as well as several articles.
e-mail: carsten.storm@tu-dresden.de

 

Mojca Pretnar
Deciphering the Discourse Metaphor of Hanshan
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….161–185

The study considers the poetry of Hanshan (寒山) from the Tang dynasty (618–907), and twenty-two so-called Hanshan poems, in which Hanshan Mountain has a metaphoric meaning. The study uses the tools of cognitive linguistics to decipher this personal, culturally related metaphor by investigating the background scenarios. This research focuses on these poems, seeing each as representing the discourse metaphor STATE OF MIND IS A MOUNTAIN. In addition, if Hanshan is a metaphor, then all natural images that constitute the mountain can be considered as parts of the metaphor too, and thus are part of the scenarios that explain the state of mind that Hanshan represents. The analysis reveals that there are two scenarios, CONTAINER and JOURNEY scenario, where the GOAL of the journey is embedded in the CONTAINER scenario. These poems narrate the stories of the journey toward self-realization and the state of mind revealed in the CONTAINER scenario, while the narratives reveal certain aspects about some of the cultural and social beliefs that existed during the Tang Dynasty.

Keywords

Hanshan | discourse metaphor | scenario | path to self-realization | state of mind

About the Author

MOJCA PRETNAR is a Slovenian sinologist and literary translator. After graduating from the University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Arts, she received her MA from the Chinese Language and Literature Department, National University of Tainan, Taiwan (R. O. C.), and is currently a PhD candidate in the Chinese Literature Department, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (R. O. C.). Her main research interests encompass poetic language, cognitive linguistics and conceptual metaphor theory with focus on Chinese Literature.
e-mail: mojca.pretnar@gmail.com

 

Review Article

Nathan W. Hill
The Contribution of Tangut to Trans-Himalayan Comparative Linguistics
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….187–200

About the Author

NATHAN W. HILL is Lecturer in Tibetan and Linguistics at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. He is the author of A Lexicon of Tibetan Verb Stems as Reported by the Grammatical Tradition (2010), editor of Medieval Tibeto-Burman Languages IV (2012), and co-editor with Kazushi Iwao of Old Tibetan Inscriptions (2009). He is currently writing a study of the sound laws relating Old Burmese, Old Chinese, and Old Tibetan, and is co-investigator with Ulrich Pagel on a project building an annotated digital corpus of Tibetan texts.
e-mail: nh36@soas.ac.uk

 

Book Reviews and Notes

 

Claude Carrier. Reproduction de 17 papyrus de ľÉgypte ancienne.(Břetislav Vachala)
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….201–202

Sebouh David Aslanian. From the Indian Ocean to the Mediterranean: The Global Trade Networks of Armenian Merchants from New Julfa. (Abdulmennan M. Altıntaş)
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….203–204

Fatih Ermiş. A History of Ottoman Economic Thought: Developments before the Nineteenth Century. (Ethan Menchinger)
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….205–206

Malek Sharif. Imperial Norms and Local Realities – The Ottoman Municipal Laws and the Municipality of Beirut (1860–1908). (Stefano Taglia)
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….207–212

 

Our Contributors
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….213–215