Issue 84/1 – 2016

Issue 84/1 – 2016

17/04/2016 Tana Dluhosova


 

Contents

Articles

 

 

Hana Vymazalová
Evidence of Three Possible Relatives of Princess Sheretnebty from Her Tomb at Abusir South
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….1–22

 

This paper focuses on new evidence from the tomb of princess Sheretnebty at Abusir South, which was uncovered during the 2012 and 2013 archaeological seasons. Three individuals are attested by names on finds from this tomb, including the statuette of Iti and an offering table and a decorated block of Ankhiemaptah and his wife Neferhekenhathor. The decorated block bears a very specific offering formula referring to Osiris, and a  depiction of the owner and his wife. The style of the relief indicates that Ankhiemaptah lived later than Sheretnebty, and the article discusses the possible interpretations of this find and the possible relationship of its owners with Sheretnebty.

Keywords

Old Kingdom | Abusir South | Sheretnebty | Iti | Ankhiemaptah | Neferhekenhathor | statue | offering basin | relief | offering formula

About the Author

HANA VYMAZALOVÁ, PhD, is a researcher at the Czech Institute of Egyptology, Faculty of Arts of Charles University in Prague. Since 2006 she has participated in the excavations of the Czech Mission at Abusir and she headed some of the partial projects on the site. Since 2015 she is a member of the Egyptian Mission at south Saqqara. Her research interests include mainly the economy and organisation of the pyramid complexes and royal funerary cults of the Old Kingdom, as well as the Old-Hieratic texts. In addition, she focuses on ancient Egyptian mathematics and medicine.
e-mail: hana.vymazalova@ff.cuni.cz

 

Teferi Mekkonen Bekele
A Decade of Regional Confrontation over the Nile Waters: The Strategic Shift from Basin-wide Development to Unilateral and Bilateral Actions in the 1950s
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..23–50

 

 This article examines how unilateral actions hindered the imperative for cooperation between Ethiopia, Egypt and the Sudan over the use of the waters of the Nile River. It focuses on the remarkable strategic shift away from the idea of comprehensive Basinwide hydraulic projects – that would have benefited all the states and hence would have brought about cooperation in the Nile Valley – to Egypt’s unilateral decision to erect the High Dam at Aswan in the early 1950s. It examines in detail Ethiopia’s counter response to the Aswan High Dam Project and the subsequent Egypt-Sudanese bilateral negotiations on the division of Nile Waters through the 1959 Nile Waters Agreement, and how the discrimination inherent in the Agreement vis-à-vis the upstream countries, particularly Ethiopia, triggered long years of legal wrangling and stalemate among the Nile Basin states. It also argues that the involvement of Cold War crusaders and the Basin states’ alignment to opposing ideological camps further complicated the hydropolitics of the Nile and deepened the differences between the Basin states. Finally, the article suggests what a lasting solution to the hydropolitics of the Nile should consist of.

Keywords

Nile | Hydropolitics | Ethiopia, Egypt and the Sudan

About the Author

TEFERI MEKONNEN BEKELE is a Post-Doctoral Fellow at the Institute for Dispute Resolution in Africa, University of South Africa, Pretoria. He has authored a PhD dissertation “The Eastern Nile Waters Issue: A History of Confrontation, Mistrust and Attempts at Cooperation, 1950s to 2002” (Addis Ababa University, 2013).
email: teferim8@gmail.com

 

Susandra van Wyk
Regulation of the Female Sābītu’s Business Ventures: Does a Unified Corpus Exist in LH §108–111?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..51–73

 Although at first glance it might seem that §108–111 of the Laws of Hammurabi (LH) are not a unified corpus, this article shows that §108–111 is a unified corpus containing a main denominator – the king/state’s intervention and control of the female sābītu’s business venture in her capacity as either an entrepreneur or a state agent. In all four paragraphs, we encounter sub-denominators, i.e., (1) the sābītu, holding a leading or supplementary position together with (2) the sābītu’s business place or her house, and (3) the sābītu’s business activities. Then, although only §108–110 entail dramatic executions, §111 is still part of the unified corpus for it serves as a transitional phrase to the preceding corpus. Overall the different scenarios in the unified corpus of §108–111 illustrate King Hammurabi’s idealistic ambition for centralisation and control, especially with regards to the female sābītu’s business venture, thus engrossing the reader in different case studies within a certain grouping.

Keywords

Laws of Hammurabi | sābītu  | Old Babylonian economy | Old Babylonian business | OB female professions | ancient Law

About the Author

SUSANDRA VAN WYK, D Litt et Phil (Ancient Near Eastern Studies), Postdoctoral Fellow, North-West University (Vaal Triangle Campus), South Africa; practising attorney and notary. Special academic interests: Old Babylonian Legal Traditions, especially Inheritance and Contracts; general academic interests: Ancient law, Ancient Cultures, Legal Traditions of Ancient Near Eastern and Roman law, which includes their textual resources and related languages. Currently engaged in preparing a monograph regarding ca. 1800–1600 Old Babylonian division agreements from the city-states of Nippur and Sipper; investigating different professions in Laws of Hammurabi, especially with regards to the legal position of women, and developing a legal memetic theory: specifically aspects of Old Babylonian legal traditions and in general concerning ancient division/redistribution agreements and our contemporary redistribution agreements in deceased estates.
email: susandra@telkomsa.net

 

Andrej V. Sideltsev
Hittite Anaphora: Two Case Studies
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………75–104

 Two aspects of anaphora in Hittite are discussed in this paper. The first is a syntactic means of marking immediate anaphora after the first mention. Besides fronting a constituent hosting -a/ma  and demonstrative phrases, it is shown that this specific type of anaphora is also marked by the seemingly redundant structure of an enclitic pronoun + full NP in its canonical position. It is argued that the parallel syntactic behaviour of all three constructions provides evidence that distinguishes some cases of enclitic pronoun + full NP from appositions, allowing them to be considered as a taxonomically distinct category, i.e., clitic doubling.

 The second part of the paper deals with non-standard anaphora in relative clauses. It explores the occasional associate anaphoric relationship between the relative phrase and its correlate (bridging) in a cross-linguistic perspective. It is shown that this non-standard anaphora provides additional evidence that Hittite relative sentences are not standard but rather that they constitute a separate taxonomic category, i.e., correlatives.

Keywords

Hittite | correlatives | relative sentences | anaphora | clitic doubling | immediate anaphora

About the Author

ANDREJ SIDELTSEV is Head of the Department of Anatolian and Celtic Languages, Institute of Linguistics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, as well as senior researcher at MGGU and RGGU. His PhD dissertation (Institute of Linguistics, 1999) was “Hittite -ske-verbs against the Indo-European Background.” A. Sideltsev’s work deals with Hittite and other languages of Asia Minor, originally within the comparative Indo-European linguistics and lately from typological and formal perspective. Recently, his research interest has been in the Hittite syntax: clause structure, verb movement, relative and indefinite pronouns. His major contributions to the field include “Hittite Clause Architecture.” Revue d’Assyriologie et d‘archéologie orientale 109 (2015): 79–112; “Enclitic -(m)a, clause architecture and the prosody of focus in Hittite.” Indogermanische Forschungen 120 (2015): 209–54 (with M. Molina); “Proleptic Pronouns in Middle Hittite.” Babel und Bibel 4, Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns (2010): 211–48.
email: acidelcev@gmail.com

 

Phokion Kotzageorgis
A City on the Move. Non-Salonicans in Thessaloniki and Salonicans Abroad in the 18th Century According to the Οttoman Probate Inventories
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….105–137

 The paper aspires to contribute to the issue of mobility within the Ottoman Empire. The research is based on an analysis of the Ottoman probate inventories of Thessaloniki, the most important port in the Ottoman Balkans in the 18th century. From a total of 4,000 probate inventories, the research focuses on a sample of more than 600 cases of both Salonicans who died away from their home town and of non Salonicans who died in Thessaloniki during almost the whole of the 18th century (1696–1770). The analysis reveals that the deceased can be classified into three categories: military men, merchants, and pilgrims. Special reference is made to women who moved around and to the places of death of foreigners in the city. These three categories suggest that the main reasons for ordinary people to voluntarily move within the Ottoman Empire were trade, pilgrimage, and membership in the army. Few cases where people travelled for personal reasons are recorded.

Keywords

Ottoman probate inventories | Thessaloniki | 18th century | mobility | Ottoman army | Ottoman merchants | Ottoman pilgrims

About the Author

PHOTON KOTZAGEORGIS is a PhD of the School of History and Archaeology of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, where he now teaches Early Modern Greek and Ottoman History, having worked there as a Lecturer from 2002 and from 2009 as an Assistant Professor. He has published three books in Greek. His research interests include the economic and social history of Greek lands under Ottoman Rule, urban history, population studies, and the Christians during the Ottoman period.
e-mail: phokion@hist.auth.gr

 

Šarūnas Paunksnis
Into the Wild: Otherness, Desire and Transforming Film Form in Hindi Cinema
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….139–158

 This essay explores the main reasons behind the emergence of a new film form over the past decade – variously referred to as “New Bollywood,” or alternative Hindi cinema. Using philosophical and psychoanalytical approaches, the essay argues that the rise of these new aesthetic forms is one of the results of the neoliberal transformations that have been taking place in India over recent decades and, more importantly, that this new film form is an integral part of the construction of the new urban upper class Self vis-à-vis  the Other. By examining some examples of recent films set in small-town India, or Other India in terms of target audience background, the essay argues that the new film form is a far more complex phenomenon than most scholars working in Indian cinema would imagine. The desire for the Other, expressed as cinematic journeys outside urban spaces, helps in the construction of a new Self in a rapidly transforming and highly mediated environment. The essay constructs an approach to understanding alternative Hindi cinema, its appeal to urban consumers, and its relationship to the spaces represented in  the films.

Keywords

Bollywood | cinema | otherness | neoliberalism | space social class | urban India

About the Author

ŠARŪNAS PAUNKSNIS is an Assistant Professor in Media Philosophy at Kaunas University of Technology in Kaunas, Lithuania. He has a PhD in Political Science (2012, Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas, Lithuania), and was an Assistant Professor in Politics at Vytautas Magnus University from 2012 to 2014. Previously he held visiting fellowships at SOAS, London; Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi; a Fulbright fellowship at Columbia University, New York. His main research areas include but are not limited to Indian cinema, postcolonial theory, cultural theory, postmodernism, and globalisation. He has recently edited and published a book titled Dislocating Globally: Deterritorialization, Difference and Resistance (Brill, 2016), and is currently writing a book on the alternative Hindi cinema.
e-mail: paunksnis@fulbrightmail.org

 

Joseph Jeong-il Lee
Use of Neo-Confucian Universalism and Practice in Seventeenth-Century Chosŏn Korea
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….159–187

 The privileged position and countrywide leadership of the ruling sa elites in the Chosŏn dynasty (1392–1910) survived wars − the Japanese Invasions (1592–98) and the Manchu Invasions (1627, 1636) − as well as occasional domestic unrest and natural disasters from the late sixteenth century into the seventeenth century. Some elites, as in the case of Cho Sŏnggi (1638–89) and Yi Tensing (1628–69), parlayed the Neo-Confucian jargon-laden articulation of Principle i 理  into an omnipresent metalanguage able to combine the natural (ontology), the knowable (epistemology), and the ethical (morality/norms) in terms of universalism. Specifically, their expositions on the relationship between the universal principle and human mind-and-heart sim 心  helped afford a resource for theoretical flexibility in which to translate the essence of the metalanguage into the maintenance of the Chosŏn establishment under their hegemony and to objectify the changing reality surrounding Chosŏn after the fall of Ming China. Exploring this correspondence between practical need and cerebral creativity in the seventeenth century will enable us to chart a new perspective for the vital reproduction of Neo-Confucian universalism in post-Ming East Asia before the advent of new universalisms from Europe.

Keywords

mind-and-heart sim 心 | Neo-Confucianism | post-Ming East Asia | Principle i 理 | sa 士 elites | universalism

About the Author

JOSEPH JEONG-IL LEE, PhD (premodern Korean intellectual and cultural history), Research Fellow, Northeast Asian History Foundation, Seoul, Korea.
e-mail: jeileee@gmail.com

 

Olivia Milburn
From Hero to Ancestor, God, and Ghost: The Posthumous Career of Han Shining
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….189–211

Han Whizhong (1089–1151) was one of the generals who played a key role in the establishment of the Southern Song dynasty, after the conquest of the north by Jurchen forces in 1126. After he died, he was commemorated by his family as an ancestor, but he was also worshipped as a god in and around the city of Suzhou, the site of his retirement home. Eventually he even became a ghost, after his grave was disturbed in the eighteenth century. As a result, Han Whizhong is one of the rare individuals whose posthumous career encompasses all three possible fates for the dead. This paper explores the processes which determined the fate after death of an individual in the second half of the imperial era. This  includes a consideration of the conflicts over how the deeply controversial events in which he took part should be represented to later generations, and discusses the reasons for the failure of the deification of Han Whizhong, in the context of the dominant representation of Suzhou as a centre for literati culture throughout the imperial era.

Keywords

Han Shizhong | Suzhou | Southern Song | death | commemoration | local history

About the Author

OLIVIA MILBURN studied for a BA in Chinese at St. Hilda’s College, University of Oxford, and an MPhil in Oriental Studies at Downing College, University of Cambridge. She wrote her PhD dissertation, entitled History and Fiction: Tales of the Hegemons of the Spring and Autumn Period from c. 300 BC to AD 220, at the School of Oriental and African Studies. After completing her PhD dissertation, she taught at the School of Oriental and African Studies for five years, before moving to Seoul National University to take up the position of Assistant Professor in the Department of Chinese Language and Literature. Her research focuses on the history and culture of the ancient kingdoms of Wu and Yue, and their interaction with Central States civilisation during the Zhou dynasty, and the history of the city of Suzhou.
e-mail: milburn@snu.ac.kr

 

 

Book Reviews and Notes

 

Christiane Ziegler (ed.). Fouilles du Louvre à Saqqara II. Les tombes hypogées de Basse Epoque. (Květa Smoláriková)
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….213–215

Martin Fitzenreiter, Christian E. Loeben, Dietrich Raue und Uta Wallenstein (Hrsg.). Gegossene Götter. Metallhandwerk und Massenproduktion im alten Ägypten. (Martin Odler)
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….216–220

Viera Pawliková-Vilhanová. The Production of History and Culture in Africa Revisited: Problems, Methods, Sources. (Otakar Hulec)
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….221–222

Daniela Moro. Writing Behind the Scenes. Stage and Gender in Enchi Rumiko’s Works. (Irene Starace)
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….223–225

 

Our Contributors
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….227–229