Issue 82/2 – 2014

Issue 82/2 - 2014

22/04/2014 aror


Articles

Shih-Wei Hsu
The Use of Figurative Language Concerning  the Death of the King ………………………………………………………. 411435

This paper aims to research the use of figurative expressions concerning the death of the king in the Pyramid Texts, biographic texts and literary texts. The death of a king was always a taboo subject and was usually expressed in euphemistic forms. The term “ascent to heaven” is the most important expression for describing the demise of the king. This term is expressed through the use of figurative language,which can come from the natural, animal and divine worlds. Examples and references of figurative expressions concerning the death of the king will be listed and discussed.

Keywords: Death of the king – figurativelanguage–PyramidTexts–biography– ascension to heaven

About the Author

Shih-Wei Hsu 徐詩薇 has just obtained her doctoral degree in Egyptology at the Freie Universität of Berlin. Her main research focuses on figurative language of the ancient Egyptian texts, especially of royal inscriptions. The other research point is the investigation of the relationship of ancient Egyptian kingship between iconographies and inscriptions.
e-mail: swhsu2012@gmail.com

 

Stefan Nowicki
Menu of the Gods. Mesopotamian Supernatural Powers  and their Nourishment, with Reference  to Selected Literary Sources …………………………………………….. 411435

The aim of this article is to identify and interpret selected literary sources which address the components of the divine diet and its development, as well as the eating habits of Mesopotamian goddesses and gods. From the preserved texts it is clear that nourishment was an equally crucial issue for the well-being of both the Mesopotamian gods and every man and women. Moreover, apart from some exceptions, the divine diet was similar or even identical to that of humans. It differed in the quality of the ingredients or the actual dishes and, sometimes, also in relation to the quantity of food that was prepared. Because of these similarities, evidence of the development of the divine cuisine, which can be found within literary tradition, can potentially be interpreted as reflectingthesocialhistoryofthehumandiet.

Keywords: ancient Mesopotamia – ancient diet – ancient food – Mesopotamian literature – Mesopotamian mythology

About the Author

Stefan Nowicki, Ph.D., Reader in the Institute of Classical, Mediterranean and Oriental Studies at the University of Wrocław, Poland. Field of research – Assyrian royal inscriptions, Mesopotamian religion and literature, Ancient Near Eastern magical rituals.
e-mail: stefan.nowicki@uni.wroc.pl

 

Robert D. Miller
Tracking the Dragon across the Ancient Near East ………………. 437458

Calvert Watkins definitively illustrated the connections between the Vedics laying of the dragon Vr̥tra by the thunder-god Indra and the storm-god dragon slaying myths of the both ancient Iran (Aži Dahāka) and Indo-European Hittites (Illuyanka). But there are actually two Hittite dragon-slaying myths – the other, Hurrian in origin, concerning the storm god Teshub – and the relationship between the two remains unclear. The Hurrian-Hittite myth clearly underlies the Canaanite storm-god dragon slaying, but the connection of the latter to an independent Semitic dragon-slaying myth is also unclear. Is there a separate Semitic myth at all, or does the dissemination of these mythological motifs all go back to Indo-European Hittites and Indo-Europeans among the Hurrians? And if there is a Semitic myth, did it disseminate from the Levant southeastward to Mesopotamia with the spread of the Amorites in the early 2nd millennium or was there an originally-Sumerian dragon-slaying myth already in Southern Mesopotamia? And what are we to do when specificmotifsoftheearliest Mesopotamian form reappear in the late Iranian Shahname? This essay tracks the dragon across the ancient Near East, as similar myths fed into each other, their elements interweaving and combining in new forms.

Keywords: Stormgod – Indra – Vr̥tra – Trita – Viśvarūpa – Thraetaona – Fereydūn – Zahhāk – Tarḫuna – Illuyanka – Teshub – Ullikummi – Ḫedammu –Baal  – Yamm – Haddad – Enuma Elish – Tiamat – Marduk

About the Author

Robert D. Miller, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Old Testament at the Catholic University of America and Research Associate in the Department of Old Testament Studies of the University of Pretoria.
e-mail: MILLERB@cua.edu

 

Rafael Herzstein
Un Apostolat en Orient : la France et la Compagnie de Jésus  auprès de la communauté Maronite …………………………………….. 459494

The origin of the Saint-Joseph University of Beirut, or U.S.J., dates back to the Seminar of Ghazir founded by the Jesuit Fathers in 1843. The College of Ghazir, established with the intention of training the local Maronite clergy, was transferred to Beirut in 1875. This center for higher studies was named Saint-Joseph University. Pope Leo XIII, in his audience of February 25, 1881, confers the title of pontificalUniversityontheU.S.J.

The present article deals with the historical context of the U.S.J., the firstgreatFrench-speaking Jesuit institution in the area which, at the time, bore the name of “Syria.” We studied the historical context for the creation of the Saint-Joseph University of Beirut, located in a province of the Ottoman Empire coveted by the future mandatory power, France.

This paper intends to show that after decades of conflict,Catholicsandrepublicansin the empire ultimately buried many of their disagreements by embracing a notion of French civilization that melded both Catholic and republican ideals. Focusing on the much-neglected intersection of politics, religion, and imperialism, it offers a new understanding of both the nature of French culture and politics at the findesiècle, as well as the power of the colonial experience to reshape European‘s most profound beliefs.

Keywords: University-Levant (Lebanon-Syria) – History – France – Jesuits  – Maronites –French Colonialism.

About the Author

Rafael Herzstein holds a B.A, B.Ed. and M.A.in Middle Eastern History and History from the Free University of Brussels and Tel Aviv University. Orientalist, he received his Ph. D. from the University of Haifa.

Specialist in French Colonial Policy, he teaches History at the Open University of Israel and at others Israeli Universities. He has published articles dealing with the History of the Levant in International Journals. His book Université Saint-Joseph de Beyrouth: Fondation et Fonctionnement de 1875 à 1914 was published in Brussels by Le Cri éditions in 2008.
e-mail: rafael@research.haifa.ac.il

 

Suvobrata Sarkar
In Pursuit of Laxmi: Entrepreneurship, Industry  and Technology in Colonial Bengal ………………………………….. 495514

There is an abundance of literature on the history of industrialization in India. This has engaged the attention of scholars for long and even today has a huge audience. It has been generally recognized that the colonial government consciously and deliberately adopted policies that had deleterious effects on the economy and industry of the subject country. Along with such exploitation paradigm, there are few issues which need to be investigated in the interest of a more comprehensive understanding of the dynamics of economic change during the British rule. The attitude adopted by the Indian promoters of industry for the selection of technology for their industrial ventures is one of such issues. Were they self-sufficient in the realm of production technologies or the borrowers of such technologies from the west? Can one locate Bengali entrepreneurship in the engineering industry? How did the Bengali entrepreneurs situate modern technical knowledge in the project of establishing large-scale industries? For example, Prafulla Chandra Ray, the great chemist, endeavoured to make his science directly relevant to the immediate needs of the society. He started the Bengal Chemical and Pharmaceutical Works Ltd. (1892) which sought to put scientificknowledgetoimmediateindustrialuse.Taking into account two case-studies,Sir Rajendra Nath Mookerjee and Dr. Prafulla Chandra Ray, the article investigates the perceptions and response of the Bengali entrepreneurs towards modern technology and their role in transforming the industrial life of Bengal.

Keywords: Technology – education – entrepreneurship – industry – colonialism – Bengal

About the Author

Suvobrata Sarkar is Assistant Professor in the Department of History, The University of Burdwan, India. He took his Ph.D. at the Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. His research interests and publications are in the area of social history of technology in South Asia. Sarkar is the author of The Quest for Technical Knowledge: Bengal in the Nineteenth Century (New Delhi: Manohar, 2012).
e-mail: suvobrata.jnu@gmail.com

 

Giulia Baccini
Narrative Variation and Motif Adaptation in Ancient Anecdotal Lore: A Perspective on the Bird-gift Story in Early and Early Medieval Chinese Sources ……………………………………………… 515538

This article examines a string of stories collected from different kinds of sources: the Hanshi waizhuan 韓詩外傳 (2nd century BC), the Shuiyuan 說苑 (late-firstcenturyBC),the Lu Lianzi 魯連子 (? third century BC), the Shiji 史記 (firstcenturyBC),theYinwenzi 尹文子 (fourth century BC), and the Xiaolin 笑林 (third century AD). It aims to illustrate how a single story, define dasatale-type, was adapted in six similar versions and how specific variation sin its narrative served to convey different political or rhetorical agendas.In particular, this study aims to highlight how stories which were part of the traditional anecdotal lore and, in historical texts and works of the Masters, were used to substantiate an argument, once changed their reading context, could change their reading paradigm and become entertaining pieces of literature.

Keywords: narrative variations – collection of anecdotes – tale-type  – Early Medieval Chinese literature

About the Author

Giulia Baccini holds a Post-doctoral research fellowship at Ca’ Foscari University (Venice). Her research interests comprise Chinese Early Medieval Literature, Chinese Textual Culture, Literary History, Literary Criticism and Theory.
e-mail: giuliabaccini@unive.it

 

Marco Fumian
New Social Classes, Old Visions of Hierarchy: the Novel Chronicles of Du Lala’s Promotions as an Example of Middle Class Virtue in the Chinese “Socialist Market” ………………… 539554

This article focuses on the reading of the popular Chinese novel Chronicles of Du Lala’s Promotions, a bestseller published in 2007 and soon followed by numerous spin-offs, to observe how the novel constructs its vision of social hierarchy in the context of the emerging market economy and of the new social stratification brought about by the capitalist division of labour. The article argues that this vision of social hierarchy, although formulated in response to the new capitalist reconfiguration of the Chinese society,draws upon and is structured by a pre-existing traditional understanding of social hierarchy, one which is steeped both in the Confucian and the Maoist constructions of the social order. In particular, after having compared the ideal social structures painted by the Confucian and Maoist doctrines and by the current Chinese government, the article illustrates how the novel, reverberating the current governmental ideology, presents the middle class as a sort of moral elite entitled to enjoy privileged status thanks to its meritorious achievements in the market.

Keywords: Chinese middle class – Chinese mass culture – socialist market economy – social hierarchy – deterritorialization – reterritorialization – Du Lala

About the Author

Marco Fumian is currently employed as researcher at D’Annunzio University in Chieti-Pescara, Italy, where he teaches Chinese language, translation and modern Chinese literature. His research is mainly focused on the investigation of the mainstream ideological narratives conveyed by the products of the contemporary Chinese popular literature and mass culture.
e-mail: m.fumian@unich.it

 

Miriam Löwensteinová and Yu Sunbee
Yi Munyǒl’s new mythology of Kim Pyǒngyǒn. “The Siin” ….. 555–580

The present article examines some aspects of Yi Munyǒl’s novel Siin (The Poet, 1991) that could be comprehended as a new biography of the vagabond poet Kim Pyǒngyǒn (金炳淵, 1807–1863, better known as Kim Rip/Sakkat 金笠, 김삿갓), or as an author’s reconstruction and re-evaluation of the phases of his poetry. Rejecting all the legendary based biographies that were created during the 20th century, it could also serve as a new mythology. In the firstpart, the article summarizes the possible historical and legendary sources that Yi Munyǒl could use, relation between the “veritable” and “fictitious” plot texture, the affinitybetweenKim Sakkat and Yi Munyǒl and the common features of their experience. This text also notices the possible message of the novel, the themes that appeared in it and author’s interventions in the text. In the second part attention is given to dealing with the historical background, settings, to the protagonists of the novel, the spatio-temporal categories, the plot essayistic structure etc.

Keywords: Kim Sakkat/Kim Rip/Kim Pyǒngyǒn – Yi Munyǒl – mythology – biography, historical novel – theme, characters, time and space, positionality

About the Authors

Miriam Löwensteinová, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Charles University in Prague, author of monographs and various articles on Korean literature, translator of Korean literature, classsical and modern, prose and poetry.
e-mail: mlowensteinova@yahoo.com

Yu Sunbee, Ph.D., lecturer at HUFS (Hankuk University of Foreign Studies), author of articles on Czech literature, semiotics and comparative literature.
e-mail: yusb@hotmail.com

 

Petra Karlová
The Emergence of Japanese Ethnology: A Case Study of the Ethnologist Matsumoto Nobuhiro in the Period 1919–1923 ………………………………………………….. 581–601

This paper attempts to clarify the emergence of Matsumoto Nobuhiro as an ethnologist in the period 1919–23. Matsumoto Nobuhiro (1897–1981) was an ethnologist who is known as a pioneer in Southeast Asian studies and the Japanese mythology in Japan. Previous researches have already pointed out the influence of Yanagita Kunio and of the French School of Sociology on Matsumoto’s academic work from the late 1920s. However, they did not examine Matsumoto’s research in the early 1920s when Matsumoto started studying ethnology. The clarification of the formation o fMatsumoto’s ethnology in this period can contribute to the understanding of emergence and formation of ethnology in Japan. Based on the analysis of Matsumoto’s writing in the period 1919–23, this paper explains that Matsumoto became ethnologist because he joined the discussion on the human origins under influence of Evolutionism. It argues that he researched primitive culture of various peoples in order to clarify the origins of the Japanese and Chinese culture. Further, the paper shows that Matsumoto became ethnologist due to studying Western ethnology under the guidance of ethno-psychologist Kawai Teiichi and folklorist Yanagita Kunio, and it mentions also influenceofMatsumoto’s teachers of Chinese history on the formation of Matsumoto’s ethnology. Therefore, the paper demonstrates that the Japanese ethnology emerged from the discussion on the human origins under influence of Evolutionism by importing Western ethnological theories in close relation with the Japanese folklore studies and history.

Keywords: Japanese ethnology – evolutionist ethnology – Matsumoto Nobuhiro – primitive culture

About the Author

Petra Karlova, Ph.D. Researcher in early modern history of Japan and Vietnam. Former research fellow at East Asia Department of the Oriental Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences. Ph.D. Candidate at the Waseda University Graduate School of Asia-Pacific Studies, Japan. Co-author of Dějiny Vietnamu (History of Vietnam, in Czech, 2008).
e-mail: Petrakarlova@hotmail.com

 

Review Article

Michael Loewe
Officials of Western Han and Their Background ………………….. 603–620

Book Reviews and Notes

Stephen Quirke. Going out in Daylight – prt m hrw: the Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead – translation, sources, meanings.
(
Břetislav Vachala) …………………………………………………………………… 621–624

Simonetta Ponchia and Mikko Luukko. The Standard Babylonian Myth of Nergal and Ereškigal. Introduction, Cuneiform Text and Transliteration with a Translation, Glossary and Commentary.
(Jiří Prosecký) ………………………………………………………………………….. 621–624

Takayoshi Oshima. The Babylonian Theodicy. Introduction, Cuneiform Text and Transliteration with a Translation, Glossary and Commentary.
(Jiří Prosecký) ………………………………………………………………………….. 621–624

Anderson H. M. Jeremiah. Community and Worldview among Paraiyars of South India. ‘Lived’ Religion.
(Pavel Hons) …………………………………………………………………………….. 621–624

Michaela Budiman. Contemporary Funeral Rituals of Sa’dan Toraja. From Aluk Todolo to “New” Religions.
(Rudolf Mrázek) ……………………………………………………………………….. 621–624

Qiliang He. Gilded Voices: Economics, Politics, and Storytelling in the Yangzi Delta since 1949.
(Olga Lomová) …………………………………………………………………………. 621–624

Carine Defoort and Nicolas Standaert, eds. The Mozi as an Evolving Text: Different Voices in Early Chinese Thought.
(Oliver Weingarten) ………………………………………………………………….. 621–624

Our Contributors ………………………………………………………………………….. 625628