Issue 77/3 – 2009

30/07/2009 Tana Dluhosova


Contents

Articles

 

Miroslav Šedivý
Austrian Relations with the Ottoman Empire during the First Mohammed Ali Crisis (1831–33) ……………………………………….. 201–218

The first Mohammed Ali crisis of the early 1830s significantly influenced the situation within the Ottoman Empire as well as the relations among the European Powers. The goal of this paper is to analyze the diplomacy of the Austrian Chancellor Metternich in the Levant during this important affair and thus to reveal how Austria’s vast economic interests in this region, and particularly in Egypt, determined the decision-making process of the cabinet in Vienna. At that time the extent of Austrian trade with Egypt exceeded that of other European countries and prevented Austria’s active involvement in the conflict. The arguments of the paper are based upon a research of the archival materials housed in Vienna, Berlin, London and Paris.

 Keywords: Metternich – Austrian-Ottoman relations – Egypt – Mohammed Ali

About the Author

Dr. Miroslav Šedivý is assistant professor of general history at the Institute of Anthropology and History, the University of West Bohemia (Pilsen). He defended his Ph.D. at Charles University in 2008. Dr. Šedivý specializes in the interplay of European politics and the so-called “Eastern Question” in the first half of the 19th century, in particular Austrian-Ottoman relations, Metternich’s foreign policy and the intercourse between Central Europe and the Levant.
e-mail: MirekSedivy@seznam.cz

 

Theo Damsteegt
The Hindi Pluperfect as a Narrative Device ……………………….. 219–232

This article deals with the use of the pluperfect as a narrative device in six short stories written by the Hindi-author Kamleśvar and published in 1964. The article distinguishes two ways of using the “absolute” pluperfect, that is, the pluperfect found in a context other than retroversions. The first type is the pluperfect that signalizes Free Indirect Discourse. In the second type, the pluperfect expresses a feeling of helplessness, as experienced by a character or narrator. The use of the pluperfect in FID is a result of the tense shift that characterizes this semi-direct style. Its occurrence in the second type, on the other hand, comes close to the central meaning of the Hindi pluperfect of indicating an action that (according to Montaut’s explanation) does not go on to, and is separated by a time interval from, the present. Here, however, that meaning should be taken metaphorically.

Keywords: Hindi – Pluperfect – Verbal tenses – Narrative techniques

About the Author

Dr. Theo Damsteegt has been teaching Hindi language and literature at the University of Leiden since 1982. He has written several books and many articles, especially about modern Hindi literature.
e-mail: T.Damsteegt@let.leidenuniv.nl

 

Jean-Charles Juster
L’identité okinawanaise vue à travers le corps dans les danses empreintes d’éléments combatifs ……………….. 233–253

The question of Okinawan identity is a specific subject in contemporary Japan. In order to study it, the present article addresses the use of the body in Okinawan society, since dances and martial arts, which are important cultural points on these islands, are strongly connected to it. Firstly, I explain that the dances which feature martial arts moves have different functions according to the place to which they originate. In the rural environment, they are thought of as a distinctive cultural production, whereas in the cities, they are used to counter discrimination from central Japan. After this, I develop an analysis of these dances as techniques of the body and their educational significance in the hamlets, relying on the system of authority and imitation, all of which share a range of sociological and psychological aspects. In the final development, I emphasize the values conveyed by the body: some dances belong to classical culture and others to folk tradition.

Keywords: Okinawa-Ryûkyû-identity – Ethnochoreology – Dances – Martial arts

About the Author

Dr. Jean-Charles Juster is a researcher at the Institute for Okinawan Studies of Hôsei University in Japan and a member of the Center for Japanese Studies at the INALCO in France. Since 2005, he has been leading fieldwork studies on Okinawan dances on the main island of Okinawa, first in the urban field and latterly in the hamlets. In 2007, he obtained his doctoral degree in Japanese Studies at the INALCO. He is currently working on several aspects of Okinawa folkloric performing arts, such as transmission within the crop rites festival and Chinese theatre in the pre-modern Ryûkyûs.
e-mail: jcjuster@hotmail.com

 

Isabella Samoilovna Gurevich
The Changes of the Historical Grammar of the Chinese Language during the 3rd–14th Centuries ……………… 255–297

The aim of the paper is to trace the development of the grammatical structure of the vernacular (colloquial) Chinese language through the changes which took place in the grammatical system (specifically in the system of function words) during the 3rd–14th centuries. In other words, I intend to closely follow the entire process of the changes from the moment the function element originated up to its status (or disappearance) in the modern language. To fulfill the task a thorough examination of an extensive body of source material was undertaken. A precise selection of the source-material was the first step towards a successful response to the proposed project. With regard to the paper under consideration the following source-materials were carefully examined: the early Chinese translations of the Buddhist works (as the main source) for the Liuchao epoch, the  Chan-Buddhist  yulu for the Tang, the texts in the  ss genre and  San Chao bei meng hui bian for the Song-Yuan period. The essay consists of three parts: the grammar of the 3rd–5th cc A.D., or Liuchao period, Chinese grammar of the Tang Dynasty, and the changes undergone during the Song-Yuan epoch.

Keywords: Chinese language-history – Grammatical development – Vernacular Chinese

About the Author

Prof. Dr. Isabella Gurevich is a senior researcher at the St. Petersburg Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, at the Russian Academy of Sciences. Her main scientific interests are concentrated on the vernacular Chinese of the III-XIV centuries, i.e., on the historical grammar of the time. She has translated Bai yu jing (Sutra of Hundred Parables) and other Buddhist works. She is the author of the Sketch of the Chinese Language of the 3rd–5th cc A.D. (based on the Chinese translations of the Buddhist works), Lin-ji lu (the translation with comments and the grammatical sketch), Historical Grammar of the Chinese Language. The language of the prose in baihua of the Song-Yuan period (PINGHUA), and co-author of the Textbook on the History on the Chinese Language of the III-XV centuries.
e-mail: igurevich@rambler.ru

 

Book Reviews and Notes

 

Wolfgang Schramm, Ein Compendium sumerisch-akkadischer Beschwörungen. (Jiří Prosecký) …………………………………………………………………………. 299–301

Diane Banks, Writing the History of Israel. (Ján Bakyta) ……………………………………………………………………………. 301–305

Rainer Kessler, Sozialgeschichte des alten Israel. Eine Einführung. (Ján Bakyta) ……………………………………………………………………………. 305–308

James Renton, The Zionist Masquerade: The Birth of the Anglo-Zionist Alliance, 1914-1918. (Jan Zouplna) …………………………………………………………………………. 309–314

 

Our Contributors …………………………………………………………………………. 315